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Spyware – Are you being watched?

Are you being spied on?

Spyware is one of the fastest-growing internet threats and I have had several nasty incidents of infection of my PC’s with this sort of malware. According to many sources spyware infects up to 80-90% of all PCs. These unobtrusive, malicious programs are designed to bypass firewalls and anti-virus software without the user’s knowledge and install themselves. Once embedded in a computer they wreak havoc on the system’s performance while gathering your personal information.

How do these programs get in?

Typically a PC gets infected with spyware in three ways:

  • Downloading a free ware program or file from sharing site.
  • Pop ups asking you to optimize some feature of your PC like security.
  • Attack programs on websites that are designed to force an installation.

The most common way is when the user installs it. In this scenario, spyware is embedded, attached, or bundled with a freeware or shareware program. The user downloads the program to their computer along with the file (often pirated music or files). Once downloaded, the spyware program gets to work collecting data for the spyware author’s personal use or to sell to a third-party. Beware of many Peer2Peer file-sharing programs – they are notorious for downloads that possess spyware programs.

The user of any downloadable program should pay extra attention to the accompanying licensing agreement. Often the software publisher will warn the user that a spyware program will be installed along with the requested program – Microsoft do this with their spyware called Genuine Advantage which checks your installed Microsoft components for pirated copies. Unfortunately, we do not always take the time to read the fine print – particularly if it is several pages long. Some agreements may provide special ‘opt-out’ boxes that the user can click to stop the spyware from being included in the download but you have to look carefully for these.

Another way that spyware can access your computer is by tricking you into manipulating the security features designed to prevent any unwanted installations. The IE browser was designed to prevent websites starting any unwanted downloads automatically. That is why the user has to initiate a download by clicking on a link. However these links can prove very easy to hijack, for example, a pop-up modeled after a standard Windows dialog box, may appear on your screen. The message may ask you if you would like to optimize your internet access – a popular trick. It provides yes or no answer buttons, but no matter which button you push, a download containing the spyware program will start. This is how Antivirus 2010 gets in for example. Newer versions of Internet Explorer are now making this spyware pathway a little bit more difficult but it seems to me that these types of program have little difficulty in getting past these security patches and I had one case where even Symantec offered no protection to these types of attack.

Finally, some spyware applications infect a system by attacking security holes in the Web browser or other software. When the user navigates a webpage controlled by a spyware author, the page contains code designed to attack the browser, and force the installation of the spyware program.

What can spyware programs do?

Spyware programs can accomplish a multitude of malicious tasks. Some of their deeds are simply annoying for the user; others can become downright aggressive in nature.

Spyware can:

  • Monitor your keystrokes for reporting purposes and track your browsing activity
  • Snoop through applications on our desktop – like Microsoft!
  • Steal credit card numbers, passwords, and other personal information.
  • They often do not provide the user with an uninstall option and places itself in unexpected or hidden places within your computer making it difficult to remove. Many times you have to dive into the registry to remove them – not a trivial task!
  • Deceptive functionality. Spyware often uses a classic ‘Trojan horse’ tactics like a virus. It can offer to synchronize your PC’s clock or keep track of forms then get to work in the background on more interesting tasks.
  • Hijack your Home page. Did you ever find that your home page was changed, or have you discovered new sites in favorites that you didn’t add?
  • Loss of privacy. Some spyware keeps track of the web sites you visit and sends that information back to the spyware vendor. Do you want to tell everyone what naughty sites you have visited?
  • Even more advertising by delivering annoying pop up advertisements. Did you install a popup stopper but you are still getting popups? The ads you are getting may not be from the web site you are on but from spyware.
  • Stolen advertising – instead of showing the ads that should appear on a web site, some spyware substitutes its own ads which can rob a web site of revenue.
  • Reduced performance by useing up system resources, CPU time, memory, disk space, and bandwidth, making your system slower.
  • System instability – most spyware isn’t very well tested or debugged the result can be system crashes, hangs, or other strange behavior.
  • Security risks. Some spyware has a built-in update feature that lets the spyware maker download and install new code to your system without your knowledge or approval.

Here are a few examples of commonly seen spyware programs:

CoolWebSearch – a set of programs that install through ‘holes’ found in Internet Explorer. These programs direct traffic to advertisements on Web sites including coolwebsearch.com. This spyware nuisance displays pop-up ads, rewrites search engine results, and alters the computer host file to direct the Domain Name System (DNS) to lookup preselected sites.
Internet Optimizer – redirects Internet Explorer error pages to advertisements. When the user follows the broken link or enters an erroneous URL, a page of advertisements pop up.
180 Solutions reports extensive information to advertisers about the Web sites which you visit. It also alters HTTP requests for affiliate advertisements linked from a Web site therefore the 180 Solutions Company makes an unearned profit off of the click through advertisements they’ve altered.
HuntBar (WinTools) or Adware. Websearch, is distributed by Traffic Syndicate and is installed by ActiveX drive-by downloading at affiliate websites or by advertisements displayed by other spyware programs. It’s a prime example of how spyware can install more spyware. These programs will add toolbars to Internet Explorer, track Web browsing behavior, and display advertisements.
Some more to be aware of:
Gator (GAIN)
180search Assistant
ISTbar/AUpdate
Transponder (vx2)
BlazeFind
Hot as Hell
Advanced Keylogger
TIBS Dialer

How can I prevent spyware?

There are a couple things you can do to prevent spyware from infecting your computer system. First, invest in a reliable commercial anti-spyware program. There are several currently on the market including stand alone software packages I recommend Enigma software package as I used it once to successfully remove antivirus2009 when it got past Symantec on my daughter’s PC – link is here take a look: http://www.enigmasoftware.com/ Other options provide the anti-spyware software as part of an anti-virus package. This type of option is offered by companies such as Sophos, Symantec, and McAfee but they are not optimized to deal with this threat and I think offer poor protection. As with most programs update your anti virus software often as there are thousands of new versions coming out almost every day.

As discussed, the Internet Explorer (IE) is often a contributor to the spyware problem because spyware programs like to attach themselves to its functionality – spyware enjoys penetrating the IE’s weaknesses. Because of this, many users have switched to non-IE browsers like Firefox that seems a little more secure. However, if you prefer to stick with Internet Explorer, be sure to update the security patches regularly every Tuesday and only download programs from reputable sources and never engage in download sites whose specialty is pirated software or content you are certain to be infected.

Recovering your external hard-disk

External Hard Drive Recovery

You can store your computer data in several different ways. Data can be stored on removable disks, hard drives, CDs, DVDs, and other types of media. Even though there are several ways that you can store your data, at some point in time the electronic or mechanical device is bound to break down, resulting in a loss of data. Even though the device may work good for years, it can always break down when you least expect it, with no way to avoid it.

Hard drives are the most common way to store data, although they are mechanical devices and can break down or crash at any time. When they crash, you’ll normally lose all of your data, which can put you in quite a bind. To be on the safe side and keep yourself protected, you should always have a backup plan, such as an external hard drive.

An external hard drive is very handy to have around. You can store any type of file on it, including music and pictures. Most people use them for videos, as they can store a lot of videos. You can get them in many different sizes, going as high as 500 GB. If you have a lot of video on your computer that is taking up a lot of much needed space, you can easily transfer it to an external hard drive and free up some of your space.

On the data recovery side of things, external hard drives are a great solution. You can back up your entire hard drive on them, even a mirror image. Most external drives are FireWire or USB compatible and will work with most computers. To use an external drive all you need to do is connect it to your computer. Then, using the software that came with the device, you can begin to transfer your data and files.

If you have a big hard drive, you’ll want to get a bigger external hard drive. If you are transferring your entire internal hard drive to the external drive, it may take you a few minutes. You can also add files and such along the way as well, if you get newer files to add. Backing up your entire hard drive to an external drive is a very smart idea, especially if your area gets a lot of electrical storms.

Once you have backed up all of your data to an external hard drive, you can rest assured that your information will be there when you need it. External drives don’t crash, for the simple fact that they aren’t in use until you need them. They will last you many years as well, which makes them great for pictures and other precious files. If you own a business, you may find them to the best way to store your business documents and other files that relate to your company.

All in all, external hard drives are the perfect way to create a back up of your data. Once you have your data backed up, you’ll be ready for anything that happens to your internal hard drive. In the event of a crash, you can use your external hard drive and transfer the data back to your hard drive, and be back up and running in no time at all. External hard drives take all of the guess work out of the data recovery process – and may also save you the trouble of having to send your hard drive off to be repaired.

Hard Disk Recovery Service UK

If anyone knows some other useful services or utilities post a reply here:

What to Look For in Wireless networking: Range, Speed and Standards.

What to Look For in Wireless networking: Range, Speed and Standards.

Not sure what you’re doing in your wireless card shopping? Want to make sure you’re buying the right thing but just have no idea what it is you’re looking for? Well, you’ve come to the right place. When you’re looking to buy a wireless network card, I can tell you right now that you’re looking at three key issues: range, speed, and standards.

A Typical Specification.

This is a typical specification for a Linksys wireless PCMCIA laptop card:

11 Mbps high-speed transfer rate; interoperable with IEEE 802.11b (DSSS) 2.4Ghz-compliant equipment; plug-and-play operation provides easy set up; long operating range (up to 120m indoor); advanced power management features conserve valuable notebook PC battery life; rugged metal design with integrated antenna; compatible with virtually all major operating systems; works with all standard Internet applications; automatic load balancing and scale back; model no. WPC11. (source: amazon.com).

Now, some of those things can be pretty much ignored. Really, ‘virtually all major operating systems’? That means nothing. The reason I’ve put it here, though, is so you can see which things are important to keep an eye out for.

Range.

See where it says ‘up to 120m indoor’? This tells you that the maximum range of the wireless card you’re looking at is 120 metres — that’s what it would be if everything was perfect. In practice, thick walls and interference can reduce this number by as much as 90%.

Without enough range, your wireless network is going to be pretty useless. It’s not much fun having no wires when you have to keep all the computers in the same room to get them to connect to each other.

As a rule of thumb, unless your walls are made of drywall or wood, it’s best to buy about four times the strength you’d think you’d need. Even in perfect conditions, get twice as much, to be safe. If you need to convert from metric to imperial units, remember that there are 30 centimetres (0.3 metres) in a foot and about 2.5 centimetres in an inch — you shouldn’t have too much trouble.

Speed.

Do you see where it says ‘Mbps’ in that description? That number is the speed of the wireless connection. 11 Mbps is about one and a half megabytes per second — to convert megabits (Mb) to megabytes (MB), just divide by eight. 802.11b wireless cards all have a speed of 11Mbps, while 802.11g ones run at 54Mbps — the next generation will be even faster.

Speed is important to your wireless network because it’s going to directly influence how long you have to wait for things like files to transfer from one computer on the network to the other. It is less important for Internet use, however, because there are currently very few Internet connections running at speeds over 11Mbps — it’s really as much as you need, at least for now.

Standards.

Somewhere in the specification of what you’re looking at, you should see the number ‘802.11’, followed by a letter ‘a’, ‘b’ or ‘g’. This is the standard that the wireless device conforms to, and tells you whether you will be able to use it with your other wireless devices.

Basically, 802.11b and 802.11g are compatible with each other. 802.11a is not compatible with either and is quite a bad standard all round, so you shouldn’t buy 802.11a. Out of b and g, b is cheaper but slower, while g is more expensive but faster. It’s worth considering that adding a b-speed device to a network that has g-speed devices will often slow the whole network down to b-speed, making the g-devices pointless.

If your wireless device doesn’t conform to the right standards, it’s not going to be much good to you. I often see naive people bidding for used wireless equipment on eBay, not realising that it’s going to be terribly slow and not work with any other equipment they might have. Always make sure that you check what standard the wireless equipment is — if you don’t know the 802.11 letter, don’t buy it!

What is the Best Operating System?

What is the Best Operating System?

There is much controversy and speculation as to which operating system on the market is really the best operating system to use.  There are some people who say that one is better than the other, and there’s no doubt that everyone is going to have an operating system that they prefer.  Still others never really think about their operating system, so they have no opinion on which one is best.  They just use their computers and go on their merry ways.

So which is the best operating system?  Some people prefer Mac OS X.  This operating system was the first to integrate graphical user interface to make it easy to use.  GUI lets the user just point and click to open programs, use the programs, and navigate their system.  Mac OS X is usually used on Apple Macintosh computers and is often preferred by Mac users exclusively.

The new Linux operating system is taking the computer industry by storm.  More and more companies are embracing Linux as a viable alternative to other operating systems.  It was also developed with an easy-to-use GUI but it features more security and more options for the everyday user.  Linux is freeware and was designed to be used by both large mainframe servers as well as personal computers alike.

No discussion about the best operating system would be complete without mentioning Windows.  Most personal computers in the world are loaded with the Windows operating system, and it is certainly the most recognizable.  Many people feel that unequivocally, Windows is the best operating system to use.  But why?

To begin with, Windows is easy to use.  It also has a graphical user interface with flashy graphics and point and click technology.  Because most computers operate on Windows, it is easy for users to navigate a computer other than their own.  That means a college student, for example, can use their laptop in their dorm room and go to the library to use the computers there without having to know how to use the operating system.

However, Windows is not without its problems.  This operating system has been well known for having bugs causing it to crash for no reason.  However, Microsoft has addressed these problems quickly and provided patches that would prove to fix the problems with the system.  Their new product, Windows Vista, has been criticized as being too large to be run on most computers although it has been hailed as new technology like no other.

So which operating system is the best operating system?  The choices are diverse, but ultimately, it’s all up to the user to decide.

Alternative Operating Systems

Alternative Operating Systems

Even though most personal computers are sold today with Windows pre-loaded, there are alternative operating systems that you can choose to install yourself.  Advances are constantly being made in computer programming that allows computer users to choose what operating system they want to use.

Of course, Windows is one of the easiest operating systems to have.  It is loaded on most computer systems, so you can use other systems besides your own with ease and without having to learn a new program.  Windows is designed to be user-friendly with point and click technology that allows nearly anyone to easily become a computer expert.

One of the alternative operating systems you can look at is rising in popularity – especially in recent years.  The Linux operating system is a freeware product developed within the last several years as an alternative to Windows.  It is also designed to be user-friendly with a graphical user interface that allows for easy navigation.

Linux has been accepted by many large corporations as a viable alternative to other operating systems.  These companies include IBM, Novell, and Sun Micro Systems.  Many of them have adopted them as their primary operating system for their mainframe computers as well as individual PCs.

As we’ve said, Linux is meant to be freeware available to anyone.  It is meant to be shared between users and programmers alike so that they can make changes to the system and re-distribute it freely with those changes.  The concept is that rather than having one programmer working on the system, many programmers can ultimately make the system better.

Besides Linux, Apple Corporation has an alternative operating system made for their PCs called Mac OS.  This operating system is usually just run on Macintosh computers, but it is always evolving and being developed so that eventually, it can be run on any computer.  Mac OS was actually the model operating system used to develop Windows.

There are many other alternative operating systems – most of which were developed as freeware like Linux.  These include GNU, Gnome, Solaris, and Unix.  They are all viable alternatives to any operating system and most are as user-friendly as Windows and Mac OS.

You don’t have to stick with any pre-loaded operating system on your new computer.  There are many alternative operating systems you can choose from and they are all meant to be easy to use and visually appealing.  You can easily install these operating systems and be well on your way to a new experience.