June 2010
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Put managers and employees to work on the change to reduce resistance

Involve Managers and Staff in the work of change management

Many Change Managers assume that if the rationale for change is made clear to the organisation then they will go along with it. In the process of demonstrating the need to change and an understanding of the impact (on themselves and their group) employees will buy- in and thereafter work actively to realise it. There is an assumption behind all this that ‘Change’ is negotiated and develops over time and that the change agent’s task is merely to make clear the imperatives and the people will fall into place.

Whilst this approach has been criticised for ignoring political and social aspects within organisations it is also inaccurate when talking about major system changes, outsourcing or mergers/acquisitions where we are faced with transitioning organisations against a strict deadlines. Here the degrees of freedom are limited and failure to successfully implement can result in stiff penalties for time and cost overruns. In such circumstances our room for ‘negotiation’ is constrained, the change outcome is a given and the people affected are faced with a forced change.

Also we see that the complexity of change is increasing as many major programmes consist of several, in their own right, substantial tasks. For example, in one major change programme I worked on the client was disentangling from a parent company and implementing an IT system with new standardised processes. All of these forcing substantial changes in role and responsibilities right across the organisation – and this programme also included the outsourcing of substantial parts of the finance function!

As well as the staff managers are affected – with perceived loss in autonomy and the need to acquire new skills key concerns. In another change programme in which the author was involved the financial controller had a significant change in job scope as a result of a system implementation and outsourcing which involved the loss of fifty percent of her staff. This resulted in prevarication and concentration on detail, non-acceptance of the rationale for change and question/problem raising that came over to the central project team as structural resistance.

The focus of our intervention in this case was on a country unit that had specific change issues that made their changeover have high perceived business risk. This unit for example had already gone through several changes of ownership in the last few years and was heavily impacted again. Our first step was to understand how the change impacted on the group, department and individuals within the business. Change needed to be thought through and the changes in role and task for these three areas were worked through in detail.

The intervention strategy we considered was based around thinking through to what the changed organisation would look like when we were finished. The patterns of communication, the new roles and responsibilities, and the impact on individual jobs were considered then the transition needed to bridge from the current situation to the future mapped out. This defined the necessary training and coaching for the individuals over and above that already covered in the formal training programmes. The transition management was trickier and this was handled by facilitating the cutover planning at group level. This acted to involve the organisation in the changeover (it’s on ‘its’ way) and engaged them in participating in the design of the move process itself. Defining in detail the roles, tasks and timings during the cutover were key aspects of this intervention. Further, interviews and group meetings around the changeover allowed ‘voice’ to be given and concerns and issues to be fully surfaced – they raised the resistance and helped solve them.

Key learning points

Do not interpret all resistance as opposition to change. Opposition can often be a sign of interest in the outcome and an expression of legitimate concern Capture the concerns and rationale. It may be that someone has identified a flaw in our reasoning and may have identified a route to possible failure, perhaps from the last time this occurred. To find out why it did not work last time may reveal some interesting lessons. However, be cautious about agreeing with an issue as this may be interpreted as a sign that the change can be negotiated – capture without judgement.

The assumption that all employees will go through the same cycle of resistance is false and too simplistic. Often there are winners in a change process. Identify these and build coalitions to build a success culture. Also some departments or groups of people are more successful with handling change than others – building on these winning groups can help bring the whole organisation along.

We all know the value of clear communication but do not forget to include the need for relevancy. Exhortations of the value of the change at a high level are useless unless made clearly relevant to the people affected. The communication must be tuned to the hearers specific needs – general broadcasts are discounted and people will provide their own rationale for change processes.

Avoid the ‘Englishman on Holiday’ change strategy – ‘if they don’t understand speak slowly and more loudly!’ At a feedback meeting for research into the situation at a French plant the consultants gave a withering overview of the impact of the various initiatives, changes and improvement programmes a major high technology company was imposing on the factory. The response from the senior team – ‘the management have not explained this clearly enough therefore “they” do not understand it – they must do it again’. People in change need focused information – how does this new system affect me. Will I still have a job? Will I be able to cope – will they train me? This means communications must be relevant, focused and bespoke aimed at a segmented audience – don’t treat people as the same with the same vanilla information requirements.

Some interventions

Local briefings at department or group level to strengthen team feelings of unity and develop focus on the task in hand.
Cutover process – form well managed meetings to act as a resolution point for raising and solving problems.

Tighter linkage to the changeover (particularly for the management) to expose the organisation to the task and encounter change.

  • Activate processes to resolve/close personnel issues — close these issues managers often have difficulty in handling these.
  • Mentor the management to actively participate and lead change via the consultant is an essential task.
  • Visible presence of change manager to emphasise the company’s commitment to making the change.
  • Reflect listen but not judge issues — allow self-reflection.
  • Ensure communications is done (Watch for gate-keeping in one project when I checked the communications had got no further than the secretary)
  • Provide recognition of improvements ideas and try to push upwards any ideas the team have that have value however small.
  • Recognise that resistance is a legitimate concern for the well-being of the business.
  • Ensure communication channels are open and deployed (again this is sometimes not done).
  • Hire consultant to act as change focus (reflecting with support but not judging or leading)
  • Tighter engagement of the organisation into the change process — they will switch to solve mode.

Finally don’t assume managers know how to manage change or know how to help their people change – because often they do not. Special training and development is necessary. Also be sure that the management has bought in, in one case the stiffest resistance came from a senior leader whose scepticism fed the resistance of the whole team.


Team Role Testing – Belbin Typology

The Belbin Team Role Test

According to this approach all team members have a so-called team role. This role is formed by a combination of personal character and talents and describes the characteristic way someone contributes to the team in conjunction with other members. This team role changes over the years as a person develops and is not a fixed construct (such as personality traits which are assumed to be more or less stable over time).

The objective of a Belbin team role test is to determine the characteristic roles that individuals possess and to find the strengths and weaknesses in the team composition. Another objective is for team members to gain an understanding of and have respect for the team roles that other people play – which perhaps is the main benefit from this approach.

The basic idea is that each team needs its own mix of different team roles in order to perform successfully and there needs to be a balance in the roles the team members play. If a team is unbalanced possibly the following symptoms could arise:

* Not goal-oriented enough and too much freewheeling,

* Re-inventing the wheel too much and not making enough use of the available information,

* Not enough focus on internal organization and finishing of activities started,

* Being too nice to each other and not really tackling and solving problems,

* Too much preparation and not really getting started.

A test like Belbin’s can give an insight into the team roles normally played by the team members and what the balance of the team is like – and thus explain some aspects of poor team performance. Unfortunately the idea that one can design teams is a controversial one – and open to much debate. Some years back as part of an experimental exercise within a major company in Europe I was a participant in a management game where team organisation was devised based on Belbin and we had to perform over a long weekend running a virtual company being stressed with all sorts of problems. There were obviously control groups put together at random and the outcome of the test was measured based on the survival of the virtual company as well as profits made. As expected little difference was seen between the designed and random groups in terms of outcomes was seen although I felt at the time a better understanding of fellow team members was a useful outcome. Overall there is little peer reviewed evidence that such approaches work.

There are also problems with this approach from a more theoretical perspective. Firstly the original concept was meant for individuals to gain an insight into their own propensities which is fine but when we switch to considering the categorisation of team members prescriptively that is where issues start arising – this can even extend to some HRM people using such approaches for selection and assessment. Which is very risky thing to do given that the team role test for all its apparent face validity has limited criterion related validity – and using such tests might have problems if you cannot objectively justify the outcome. Type tests can also be a crude pigeon-holing mechanism for fitting people into a number of boxes, grossly over-simplify a personality profile (MBTI has only four scales for example), smaller scales can miss out on important details and  cut off points from one category to another can mean a very small difference in score can result in being moved from one category to the next. Also Belbin is an ipsative test where each item is simultaneous concerned with more than one dimension and the dimensions are not independent as a score of high along one scale necessarily means a lower score is achieved on another. As a result an ipsative test can show what dimensions are relatively important for an individual but cannot be used to compare across individuals. This is because it is possible to have a profile where the secondary characteristic score is ‘higher’ than another person’s primary tendency – accordingly such comparisons have little meaning. Moral of the story use such test only for what was intended.

Belbin’s original research devised around eight major team roles: and lately have added an extra dimension of ‘specialist’: Company worker, Chairman, Shaper, Innovator, Resource investigator, Monitor-evaluator, Team Worker, Completer- Finisher

Here is the link to the Belbin Site where you can get further information and take a full test: Belbin: The home of Belbin Team Roles